Carlo Levi was a Jewish doctor who opposed Mussolini when Mussolini went to war with Ethiopia and he was banished into exile in Lucania (Basilicata). He wrote the book 'Christ stopped at Eboli' documenting his time in exile. He was in exile in a village called Gagliano which is just next to Matera. But the living conditions were very similar so much so that he could be describing living conditions in Matera. He was more a painter and philosopher than a doctor and he painted when he was in exile. His work can be seen at the Museo Palazzo Lanfranchi in Matera. There is a whole room dedicated to Carlo Levi..